Landscape Evolution

Soil formation takes a very long time. For example, in areas such as Canada that were completely covered by glaciers, soil formation started as soon as glaciers retreated. The graphics below illustrate evolution (progression) of landscapes during the past 25,000 years. At the peak of the last glaciation, about 25,000 years ago, the land was covered by ice. Glaciers retreated around 10,000 years ago and revealed a barren landscape blanketed by glacial deposits and melt-water. In the present day, glacial deposits are covered by vegetation.
Click on the icons to watch related videos. See the legend for titles of related videos.
Present Day
10,000 Years Ago
25,000 Years Ago

glacial-25000y

Graphics Legend Present Day

  1. Erratics video
  2. Drumlinized till plain: Post glaciation landscape video
  3. Kame complex video
  4. Glacio-lacustrine parent material video, #1
  5. Glacio-marine parent material video
  6. Marine parent material video
  7. Delta formation video
  8. Loess plain: Eolian parent material video
  9. Colluvial parent material video
  10. Cumulose video
10,000 Years Ago

  1. Terminal moraine: Glacial Geomorphology video
  2. Ablation till video
  3. Kettle holes video
  4. Outwash Landforms
  5. Moulin: Moulin, kame and esker formation video
  6. Ice cave video
  7. Esker: An esker today video
  8. Formation of glacio-lacustrine deposits, #2
  9. Icebergs and rafting
  10. Hanging glaciers video
Erratics Video Drumlinized till plain: Post glaciation landscape video Kame complex video Glacio-lacustrine parent material video, #1 Glacio-marine parent material video Marine parent material video Delta formation video Loess plain: Eolian parent material video Colluvial parent material video Cumulose video Team Terminal moraine: Glacial Geomorphology video Ablation till video Kettle holes video Outwash Landforms Moulin: Moulin, kame and esker formation video Ice cave video Esker: An esker today video Formation of glacio-lacustrine deposits, #2 Icebergs and rafting Hanging glaciers video

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